September 1939 - graduated from Military College. Rank: Lieutenant.
Transferred to the Aviation Regiment.
December 4, 1939 - begins flight school (observer) training.
1940 - 1941 (Soviet Occupation) Serves in the Latvian Squadron of the Soviet 24th Territorial Corps, stationed
at Gulbene and flying the captured Latvian SV-5s.
1944 (German occupation) Serves with NSG 12 (Luftwaffe Legion Lettland), a latvian night bomber unit
within the German Luftwaffe. He was trained at Liepaja-Grobini and was intended for the 3rd Squadron, but when
it was decided to drop the 3rd Squadron he was assigned to the 1st Squadron as a replacement. On one of the night
flights he became lost when returning to base and crash landed in a forest. The plane was destroyed, but he suffered
only minor injuries.
Emigrated to Canada after the war.
- Bruvelis, Edvins Latvijas Aviacijas Vesture
- Daugavas Vanagu Menesraksts, 1978 No.1 pg. 27 [Malins]
- Daugavas Vanagu Menesraksts, 1980 No.1 pg. 39 [K.Krastins]
- Daugavas Vanagu Menesraksts, 1983 No.3 pg. 31 [K.Krastins]
- Hazners & Berzins (ed) Latviesu Karavirs Otra Pasaules Kara Laika Vol.7 pg.31, 62,      72-76
- Kadets No.17, 1990.